26 Juni 2008

Mashuri, Wayang and The Present

Name : Musthafa Amin
ID : 04320081
Class : Translation

MASHURI, WAYANG, AND THE PRESENT
Wednesday, 14 March 2007 | 04:34 PM

TEMPO Interactive, Jakarta: ...I’m your son. You gave me tha name Wisranama and I were titled as Danapati also-known-as Danaraja when ruled Praja Lokapala to displace you. I still didn’t understand as far as your love to me. My memory still headed for living tragedy you ever created and burn all of myself and my hopes. Unfortunately, everything has so glorious beginning…

Thus, this is the preface of novel Hubbu by Mashuri, age 31, that won novel competition which was held by Jakarta Artistry Council (well-known as DKJ) 2006. His work outdone other 248 manuscripts and he entitled to gain prominent prize as big as 20 millions.

The novel, as the author/writer thought, mixed together the element of Wayang with the present time. “The element which is mixed together is interesting,” said Mashuri that delighted to integrate surrealism, Sufism, and language efficiency in his poem and roman.

Hubbu was originated from Arabic that mean love. This novel told about the journey of Jarot’s life, the pseudonym of character namely Abdulah Sattar. This is story about the background of his family life, love story with his obsession, and inner conflict of his adolescent that made him more contemptible in the world. Then, he left his past and came up from being buried.

Mashuri early admitted to entitle his novel Mahabbah. “But it was adhered with Rabiah Adawiyah, female Sufi from Basra, Iraq. I looked for the root, Hubbu because this novel intended to discover the relationship of love, affection and sexual desire,” said Mashuri who go through postgraduate title. The narration of this novel was gone through over all sorts of point of views and various narrative styles from figurative narration upon Jarot, completed with its perspective.

How do you deliver this novel? Mashuri metaphorically allegorized the creative process of this work resembled to someone pregnant with. He didn’t prepare this work specifically for the competition. “I just look for another shapes of disclosure or expression to compose literature,” said him that admired Sapardi Djoko Damono and Goenawan Moehammad.

Prose and poem was considered to have overbalance and weakness in accommodating inspirations. Poem also coloured this novel. “This is because I go off from poem/because I am originally poet,” said him who’s his singular poetic anthology, Jawadwipa 3003 was read in Faculty of Letters of Airlangga University with theatrical performance, musical instruments and discussion.

Many Mashuri’s companions considered the novel as Mashuri’s biography because there was a story of student of Indonesian literature of Airlangga University and it had a background of pesantren/Islamic cottage. “I try to avoid the identification that can destruct the wealth of interpretation. This is a fiction though it has a place to stand on,” said alumni of Salafiyah Islamic Cottage Raudlatul Muta’allimin and Islamic Cottage of Ta’sisut Taqwa Galang Lamongan.

Before writing a novel, Mashuri was productive in writing poems, essay, and few short stories that was publicized in some mass media and anthology books. He was also active to write such poems in Javanese (guritan). Now, he is arranging an ambitious novel, Reinterpreting Centini. For Mashuri, writing was an activity that he believed that it made him become accustomed to play with such words and sentences. “I make poem everyday as testimony of life and livelihood,” said Mashuri that acknowledged borrowing this term from senior poet, Herry from Lamongan.

He did the work of composing literary among his job as newspaper journalist of Memorandum, Surabaya. “Writing is to fill up the life while being journalist is to continue the life,” said ex-caretaker of column Ngaji Sastra in daily newspaper Duta Masyarakat.

From all of woks he ever made such as poems or novels, the topic that he paid attention was always about sex, love, tradition, and flashback of the past and the present day. “Inside it there is betrayal, secret, and taboo.”
EVIETA FADJAR



Teks Asli dari Tempo Interaktif
MASHURI, WAYANG, DAN KEKINIAN
Rabu, 14 Maret 2007 | 16:34 WIB

TEMPO Interaktif, Jakarta: ...Aku putramu, yang kau beri nama Wisrawana dan bergelar Danapati alias Danaraja ketika memerintah Praja Lokapala menggantikanmu, tak juga mengerti, sampai di mana kasihmu kepadaku. Ingatanku masih terpatri pada tragedi hidup yang pernah kau sulut dan membakar seluruh diri dan harapanku. Sayang, segalanya bermula begitu indah...

Demikian kalimat pendahuluan dari novel Hubbu karya Mashuri, 31 tahun, yang memenangi Sayembara Novel Dewan Kesenian Jakarta 2006. Karya itu mengungguli 248 naskah lain dan berhak memperoleh hadiah utama Rp 20 juta.

Novel itu, menurut penulisnya, mencampur unsur wayang dengan kekinian. "Unsur yang dicampur aduk itu menarik," ungkap Mashuri, yang gemar memadukan surealis, sufi, dan pendayagunaan bahasa dalam karya puisi dan romannya.

Hubbu berasal dari bahasa Arab, yang berarti cinta. Novel ini berkisah tentang perjalanan hidup Jarot, nama panggilan tokoh Abdullah Sattar. Ini kisah tentang latar belakang keluarga, kisah cinta dengan obsesi-obsesinya, dan konflik batin masa remaja sehingga membuatnya merasa paling hina di dunia. Lalu ia memenggal masa lalu dan bangkit dari keterpurukan.

Mashuri mengaku awalnya ia ingin memberi judul Mahabbah. "Tapi kata itu lekat pada sosok Rabiah Adawiyah, sufi perempuan dari Basra, Irak. Saya mencari akar katanya, Hubbu. Sebab, novel ini hendak menggali hubungan cinta, kasih, dan berahi," ucap Mashuri, yang sedang menempuh pascasarjana itu.

Pengisahan novel ditempuh dalam berbagai sudut pandang dan gaya penceritaan beragam dari penuturan tokoh terhadap Jarot, lengkap dengan perspektifnya. Bagaimana melahirkan novel ini? Dengan kiasan, Mashuri mengibaratkan proses kreatif karya ini mirip orang mengandung. Ia tidak mempersiapkan karya ini khusus untuk sayembara. "Saya hanya mencari bentuk lain pengungkapan atau ekspresi bersastra," ujar pengagum Sapardi Djoko Damono dan Goenawan Mohamad ini.

Prosa dan puisi dianggap punya kelebihan dan kelemahan dalam menampung aspirasi. Puisi juga mewarnai novel ini. "Karena saya berangkat dari puisi," kata pria yang antologi puisi tunggalnya, Jawadwipa 3003, dibacakan di Fakultas Sastra Universitas Airlangga dengan teatrikalisasi, musikalisasi, dan diskusi.

Banyak rekan Mashuri menganggap novel itu adalah biografi Mashuri. Sebab, ada kisah mahasiswa Sastra Indonesia Universitas Airlangga dan berlatar belakang pesantren. "Saya berusaha menghindari identifikasi yang bisa membunuh kekayaan tafsir tersebut. Ini fiksi kendati ada pijakannya," kata jebolan pondok pesantren Salafiyah Raudlatul Muta’allimin dan pondok pesantren Ta'sisut Taqwa Galang, Lamongan, itu.

Sebelum menulis novel, Mashuri sangat produktif menulis puisi, esai, dan sedikit cerpen, yang dipublikasikan di berbagai media cetak dan buku antologi. Ia juga aktif menulis puisi dalam bahasa Jawa (guritan). Kini ia sedang menyusun novel ambisius, Menafsir ulang Centini. Bagi Mashuri, menulis adalah aktivitas yang diyakini membuatnya terbiasa berselancar di atas kata dan kalimat. "Setiap hari saya bikin puisi. Sebagai kesaksian atas hidup dan kehidupan," kata Mashuri, yang mengakui meminjam istilah ini dari penyair senior Herry Lamongan.

Pekerjaan bersastra itu dilakukan di sela-sela pekerjaannya sebagai wartawan surat kabar Memorandum, Surabaya. "Menulis untuk mengisi hidup, sedangkan menjadi wartawan untuk menyambung hidup," ujar mantan pengasuh rubrik Ngaji Sastra harian Duta Masyarakat itu.

Dari semua karya yang pernah dia buat, seperti puisi atau novel, tema yang memancing perhatiannya selalu berkisar soal seks, cinta, tradisi, dan kilas balik masa lalu dan kini. "Di dalamnya ada pengkhianatan, rahasia, dan tabu."

EVIETA FADJAR 

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Dosa Sang Ayah: Romeo dan Juliet, Sebuah Kisah Pengorbanan Manusia

Oleh: Clifford Stetner

Alih Bahasa: Musthafa Amin (04320081)

Romeo dan Juliet merupakan contoh kisah cinta yang sempurna di kebudayaan barat. Bagaimanapun, dari pandangan yang cukup berbeda, kisah ini menjadi cerita inspiratif tentang dampak dari kebanggaan, kebencian dan peperangan. Kematian dua anak muda yang saling mencintai menampilkan keduanya sebagai hukuman dan pengorbanan—camkan setting tanah suci dan adanya tanda salib dan darah, seperti halnya masa muda si korban—yang menebus dosa ayah-ayah mereka. Kekuatan tragis pengorbanan yang sangat berharga ini mengalahkan perseteruan keluarga yang membenci satu sama lain dan paling tidak mempertimbangkan genjatan senjata sementara. Jika kita mengangkat topik tentang perang saudara, dan bukan potret tentang cinta ideal yang menjadi tema sentral Shakespeare, maka Montague dan Capulet adalah tokoh protagonis. Permusuhan mereka menentukan tahapan munculnya kejadian fatal yang akhirnya menghancurkan putera-puteri mereka. (Permusuhan mereka menjelma menjadi wajah bengis yang akhirnya menghancurkan putera-puteri mereka).

Kebencian antar tokoh senior Verona ditampilkan tanpa menjelaskan asal muasalnya dan langsung ditampilkan tanpa masuk akal (absurd) oleh istri-istri mereka dengan melarang mereka membunuh sesamanya, Lady Capulet yang mencegah suaminya, ‘Kruk, kruk (kayu penyangga)! Kenapa kamu meminta pedang?’ (1,i, 83). Hal ini juga ditampilkan serius oleh pangeran yang menetapkan hukuman mati karena berkelahi di jalanan Verona. Hal tersebut adalah kecongkakan ayah-ayah mereka yang keras kepala dan penolakan mereka untuk menyampingkan perbedaan mereka, bahkan kemudian penyebab perselisihan seperti dilupakan yang akhirnya berimbas kematian dua kekasih itu. Kesalahan karakter menjadi milik generasi paling tua, seperti halnya dalam tragedi puncak.

Perilaku ayah Romeo dan Juliet berkenaan dengan setiap perbedaan mereka secara jelas dibandingkan dengan perangai mereka pada keturunannya. Meski pengawasan Capulet pada puterinya menjadi sangat sering dalam satu adegan (3,v,142ff), kesungguhan cintanya pada sang puteri terus berlanjut. Ketulusan dan pengendalian dalam ucapannya, ketika mendapati puterinya meninggal di kamarnya menandakan kedalaman kasih sayang Capulet pada anaknya. (4,v,25ff).

Hal tersebut hanyalah bentuk ketulusan cinta seorang Capulet dan Montague pada anak-anaknya yang memanusiakan mereka dan menghindarkan mereka menjadi tokoh jenaka. Meskipun hanya perawat yang menceritakan kisah sentimentil penyapihan Juliet dan penurunannya sebagai seorang anak kecil (1,iii,11), gambaran ini memperkuat persepsi audiens tentang karakternya sebagai objek anak muda atas kasih sayang orang tua. Dalam segala hal, di samping kesungguhan cintanya pada Romeo, dia hanyalah seorang anak kecil dan anak yang tinggal dengan orang tuanya (1,ii,14).

Ketika Paris kali pertama meminta kesediaan Juliet, sangat jelas bahwa ayahnya—seperti pada banyak kasus tentang/yang sering terjadi pada anak perempuan di Eropa pertengahan (dan juga dalam periode romantisme kesusasteraan)—tidak melihat dia hanya sebagai upaya kemajuan sosial. Dia bahkan dia menyatakan bahwa dia lebih cenderung memberikan pilihan pada anak perempuannya yang berusia tiga belas tahun tentang masalah suami. Satu-satunya alasan dia pada kesungguhan sikap liberalnya ini dikarenakan kasih sayangnya pada puterinya.

Perhatian Montague pada kegundahan puteranya di permulaan babak (drama) pertama pun menunjukkan kelembutan yang tulus dari pihak ayah yang dia pertahankan sepenuhnya. Dengan membandingkan puteranya seperti ‘tunas yang digerogoti cacing yang cemburu/Kelak dia dapat menyebarkan dedaunannya yang indah ke udara,’ dia membela Benvolio muda, ‘Masih bisakah kita belajar dari mana duka citanya timbul/Kita akan dengan dengan sepenuh hati memberikan penyembuh yang kita ketahui’ (1,I,157).

Montague adalah sosok ayah yang melewati standar modern tentang sensitifitas orang tua. Tanggapan dia pada kerusuhan remaja puteranya mungkin berbeda dengan hubungan Henry IV dengan pangeran Hal. Bagian Pertama drama Henry IV dibuka dengan pangeran yang tengah mengalami tahap asusila yang parah. Keluhannya jauh berbeda dari Romeo, tetapi hal tersebut bukan karena kurangnya kedewasaan (sekalipun Hal mungkin lebih tua dari Romeo). Bagaimanapun, ayahnya melakukan pendekatan hubungan orang tua masa Elizabethan yang lebih konvensional, mengingatkan Hal akan tugas filialnya (sebagai seorang anak) dan memintanya dengan tegas agar dia berbuat baik dan berlaku benar (3,ii,4ff).

Barangkali masalah tanggung jawab masih sangat relevan/terkait bagi seorang ahli waris singgasana kerajaan daripada pasangan pemuda-pemuda Italia, dan hal ini sebagai alasan bahwa Raja fokus kepada serangan Hal pada dirinya dan reputasinya sendiri. Sementara Montague hanya prihatin terhadap kebahagian puteranya. Setidaknya, hal tersebut adalah tampaknya rasa kasih sayang Montague pada/hal tersebut adalah bukti seorang Montague begitu memanjakan Romeo yang membuat tragedi kematian Romeo lebih sebagai tragedi Montague daripada Romeo. Betapapun, simpulan sempurna seperti apakah yang bisa diharapkan seseorang dari cinta yang sempurna daripada untuk mengagungkan keabadian di sisi sesama? Hal tersebut adalah orang tua mereka yang hancur ditinggalkan dengan hilangnya segala tempat harapan mereka. (1,ii,14)

Mungkin Shakespeare, di balik perang saudara antara Montague dan Capulet, berniat menyajikannya sebagai latar belakang atas gambarannya tentang perjalanan tragis sebuah cinta yang ideal. Atau mungkin dia, di balik kematian dua anak muda, berniat menunjukkannya sebagai konsekuensi tragis dari kebencian yang tak kunjung usai. Dia sendiri adalah kedua pecinta tersebut yang menulis soneta, sekaligus seorang ayah dari anak muda dan dia mampu memaparkan kedukaan setiap tragedi. Barangkali dia paham tema lakon akan berubah ketika kita, sang audiens, bertambah dewasa, ketika kita menjadi kurang yakin bahwa gairah masa muda adalah akhir segalanya dan seluruh eksistensi (keberadaan), ketika kita tidak rela memaafkan Friar Lawrence yang melakukan penipuan pada orang tua Juliet.(4,v,33) Tetapi hal ini akan mengasumsikan bahwa dia menulis demi anak cucu daripada terpenuhinya persyaratan/kebutuhan tahapan Elizabethan. Hal ini ada kemungkinan bahwa dia telah memandang drama sebagai keutuhan organik, dengan tanpa kebencian orang tua pada orang tua, cinta orang tua pada sang anak, maupun cinta sang anak pada anak sebagai hal yang paling utama/tidak ada yang terdepan, baik itu kebencian antar orang tua, cinta orang tua pada sang anak maupun cinta antar sang anak. Seagung-agungnya emosi manusia, ia tidak pernah berlaku di ruang hampa.

Shakespeare, William.  ‘Romeo and Juliet.’  Five Tragedies.  Ed. C.H. Hereford. Arden Shakespeare.  London:  D.C. Heath, 1916.  v-235.

Teks ini adalah salah satu tugas kuliah Translation. Daripada nganggur ku-posting aja, semoga bermanfaat. jika ada terjemahan yang kurang mengena, silahkan dan saya harap koreksinya.

Naskah Aslinya di: http://phoenixandturtle.net/papers.html 

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Learning History by Fiction


 
Title : Rahasia Meede (Misteri Harta Karun VOC)
Writer : E. S. Ito
Editor : Hikmah
Publisher : I, Oktober 2007
Number of Pages : 675 Pages
Language : Indonesia

In the recent fiction world (likely novel, short story and poem), many authors indulged readers’ imagination to ask and to guess. But several author that was skilled to relate his story with glorious famous concept. For example, Dan Brown, the author of popular literary work The Da Vinci Code, was skilled to consugate his construction of story with the life of famous artist, Leonardo Da Vinci. Likewise, Matthew Pearl also wrote his work in relationship with the poet, Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), until he succeed his novel, The Dante Club as famous literary work in the world.

A novel, Rahasia Meede (Misteri Harta Karun VOC), by Es Ito was also based on what Dan Brown and Matthew Pearl had done their works. He presented his novel plot by way of history of trading cartel of Dutch, VOC (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) from its beginning, its wealth and its bankruptcy, year 1799. The point of story in this novel told about the hunt of VOC treasure that was began by the arrival of mysterious man to hotel where Indonesian delegations lodged to attend the Round Table Conference (well-known as KMB) of 1949 in Den Haag.

Further, Indonesian negotiators had been confronted to difficult choices. Dutch presented section about the diversion of Dutch debt in the amount of 4, 3 billion gulden to Indonesia. Hatta, as one of Indonesian negotiator had compromised with kind of solutions, but other negotiators had no deal at all. Then, there was stranger gave a sheet of worn-out paper to one of delegation. “Ontvangen maar die onderhandeling. Indonesie heeft niets te verliezen!” (Accept the negotiation! Indonesia would not lose out!), spoke him confidentially.

It might be true what he said that Indonesia wouldn’t lose out anything because what stranger gave is secret document that contained the location of gold storage belonging to VOC. Unfortunately, the document was passed away, and it couldn’t be found in documental case of KMB that Indonesian delegation brought.

That was the fundamental problems of the story in this novel. But, the writer did not directly explain about the hunt of treasure that was buried during three centuries. Es Ito, in fact, exposed the story with chain murder cases that leaved some big questions. In more and less five months, there were five human corpses which were invented and they were identified as personages. They were Saleh Sukira (ulama) founded in Bukittinggi, Santoso Wanadjaya (entrepreneur) murdered in Brussels, Nursinta Tegarwati (member of House of Representatives—DPR) murdered in Bangka, JP Surono (bureaucrat) murdered in Boven Digoel and Nono Didaktika (researcher) murdered in Banda Besar.

Batu Noah Gultom, the reporter of newspaper Indonesiaraya suspected that this was not an ordinary murder. It was occurring five times in the city that was preceded by letter B (Bukittinggi, Brussels, Bangka, Boven Digoel, and Banda Besar). The strange thing was the crime scene was the town that Bung Hatta ever visited, so that, this murder referred to the famous public figure in Indonesia.

As one mystery was not revealed yet, the reader would be surprised with another mystery. Batu was made confused by the kidnapping of Cathleen Zwinckel, the student of Leiden University that was doing research about the history of colonial economy in Jakarta. Before being kidnapped, Prof. Huygens, as the advisor of Cathleen, entrusted her in private research institution, Central Strategic Affair (CSA).

The senior editor of Indonesiaraya, Parada Gultom, was also being nowhere. Batu almost confirmed that the power behind these incidents was a clandestine movement that was well-known as Anarki Nusantara (Archipelago Anarchy). Before these incidents happened, actually, the movement leaded by Attar Malaka was also chargeable to be the mastermind of armed attack and building destruction in northern Jakarta.

By this work, Es Ito freely took the readers to situation of old Batavia during the leadership of Governor, Cornelis J Spellman (1682) and the activity of Monsterverbond (secret alliance that controlled VOC). He also unexpectedly uncovered the invention of underground tunnel (De Ondergrondse Stad) in Museum of History of Jakarta (Museum Fatahillah). The tunnel was predicted to end in the depository of secret document about treasure of VOC which was lost since 1949.

Apparently, Batu Noah Gultom was not only ordinary reporter; he was agent of secret military service that infiltrated to Indonesiaraya in order to trace the hiding place of Attar Malaka, who had worked there before being fugitive. When Batu saved Cathleen from kidnapping, he was undercover as police namely Roni, whereas he was Batu August Mendrofa, a military secret agent with code name, Lalat Merah (Red Fly).

Actually, Batu already knew the man behind kidnapping of Parada Gultom. He was abducted by Darmoko, ex-military general that was the leader of Omega Operation intending to eliminate every henchman of Anarki Nusantara. Parada was being interrogated to dig up secret information about Attar Malaka’s involvement on armed attacking, destructing some building, chain murdering, and kidnapping Cathleen. So, we could find many conspiracies in the story.

ES Ito succeeded to frame the story’s complexity with history of old Batavia in detail. But is it true that the novel could be categorized as historical novel?

Though there was no clear definition about historical novel, according Damhuri Muhammad, at least this genre of novel (historical novel) could be identified as literary work that stood on past event. Then, the character, plot, and the ideas could be traced by historiography. When Ito’s work was approached by this point of view, it was not quite enough to say that this novel was historical novel because the author presented the fact of history as supporting plot such as KMB and the condition of VOC but actually the journey to find treasure and also the treasure itself was difficult to trace it by historiography.

So that, to say the novel was kind of historical novel, likely what opinion in cover said that this was kind of historical thriller novel (novel thriller sejarah) is not appropriate, this was only kind of combination between fiction and supporting fact.

Based on that the historical event as supporting thing, there were two choices for readers, story or history? Perhaps, it’s admittedly easier for us to build history’s awareness from kind of fiction though the real fact of history in this novel was only being supporting environment. Learning history by fiction was one thing that we could do when learning history from textbook was considered by many people as tiresome memorizing work in education.

Musthafa Amin. Student of English and Letters Department of Faculty of Humanity and Culture of Islamic State University of Malang.


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